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Energy:  A scalar state that allows an object to do work 

Kinetic Energy:  The amount of energy an object based entirely on the mass of that object and speed. 

Potential Energy:  The amount of energy an object has based on it's location whether its in a gravitational field or compressing a spring 

Thermal Energy:  The molecular energy based on it's motion which we measure using temperature. 

Gravitational Energy:  


      In physics, energy  is a quantity that can be assigned to every particle, object, and system of objects as a consequence of the state of that particle, object or system of objects. Different forms of energy include kinetic, potentialthermal, gravitational, soundelastic, light, electric and magnetic energy. The forms of energy are often named after a related force. German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz established that all forms of energy are equivalent - energy in one form can disappear but the same amount of energy will appear in another form.  Energy is subject to a conservation law. Energy is a scalar physical quantity. In the International System of Units (SI), energy is measured in joules, but in some fields other units such as kilowatt-hours and kilocalories are also used.

Definition provided by Wikipedia

Joule, Unit of Energy 

   The joule named after James Prescott Joule, is the derived unit of energy in the International System of Units. It is the energy exerted by the force of one newton acting to move an object through a distance of onemetre. In terms of dimensions: