Heisenberg and Schrödinger 

 The Schrodinger equation plays the role of Newton's Laws and conservation of energy in classical mechanics - i.e., it predicts the future behavior of a dynamic system. It is a wave equation in terms of the wave-function which predicts analytically and precisely the probability of events or outcome. The detailed outcome is not strictly determined, but given a large number of events, the Schrodinger equation will predict the distribution of results.

the Schrödinger's equation is one of the most important equations from the last century (Einstein's equation for energy, Heisenberg's Uncertainty principal are probable the only equations of greater importance)  

Historical note:

     Einstein, Bohr, De Broglie, and Heisenberg all looked for a cause for the strange results they discovered

     Schrödinger developed his equation from data that was collected.  This is like Newton's universal gravity, Newton was able to predict the behavior of the planets in our solar system, but never was able to explain why.  It took 200 years of scientific advancements for Einstein was able to explain gravity (Sort of).  Will it take that long for an explanation of why Schrödinger's equation works, maybe, if it is ever explained.

Definition Provided by Hyperphysics